Sunday, August 18, 2019

Theories of Personality Essays -- Psychology, Personality Test

Introversion has the greatest chance of negatively affecting SLA. Students that are afraid of embarrassing themselves by speaking incorrectly or by not being able to speak at all may try to avoid opportunities that would otherwise aid their learning (Zhang, 2008). Since 1960, personality has emerged as major field of specialization among doctoral candidates (Vance & Macphail, 1964). Many investigations have been accomplished followed by literature on a variety of theories of personality. The importance on individual differences and distinctiveness of the individual are the most frequent features of the study of personality. There is a guarantee that each person’s profile is different from that of another person and thus, each person has unique personality (Allport & Odbert, 1936). Nevertheless, the question is how do we determine personality? In general, the easiest approach to do this was through the observations of individual differences. Though, the validity and reliability of such observation can be questioned as it is not efficient and systematic adequately. On the other han...

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Role of Cognition and Thought in Learning

Learning is an essential part of man’s life. Learning is attained through continuous education and acquisition of knowledge pertinent to a man’s daily concerns and activities. Thus, learning is a process of acquiring knowledge and information over time. There are various ways and means of attaining information and knowledge. Some people choose to attend formal education in order to obtain a systematic form of learning. However, learning can also be attained through experiences and observation. Learning is comprised of various mechanisms that helps perform total learning process. Cognition is one of the relevant mechanisms that are needed in acquiring pertinent knowledge and information. Cognition is a concept that is utilized in various fields. In the field of psychology, cognition refers to the processing of information viewed by the psychologists in human’s psychological functions. It can also be interpreted as gaining perceptions and opinions. The term cognition refers to the various mental processes used to acquire learning. This includes â€Å"gaining knowledge and comprehension, including thinking, knowing, remembering, judging, and problem solving. These are higher-level functions of the brain and encompass language, imagination, perception, and planning† (Wagner, 2008). It also involves various processes of human beings such as learning, attention, memory, thought, perception, problem-solving, reading and concept formation. It is a concept that is very broad and involves abstract processes such as thinking (Ireland On-Line, n. d. ). Cognition also involves adjusting to the internal processes of the external world. The adjustment period is accomplished through process of experience and discovery and the assimilation of interaction and the resulting adaptation. The very task of cognition is learning (Alpiner & McCarthy, 2000). Thought, on the other hand, is one of the underlying mechanisms of cognition. It is one of the mental processes that are parts of human cognition. It is a product of mental activity which can be in the form of idea, concept and percept. Cognition and thought play significant roles in the whole learning process. Cognition is regarded with high value of importance especially during childhood, as majority of the knowledge and information acquired by an individual happens through the early stages of development. It is a part of child’s learning as they move along the various stages of development. Cognition evolves through the entire life span of a person, but the development is rapid during childhood years (Alpiner & McCarthy, 2000). It has been observed that language development in children fails unless they are exposed to language. Language is an emergent behavior which can be acquired if the person is exposed on the certain aspect of learning. Such input is important in cognition, as cognition is the aspect of mental activity which processes the acquisition of knowledge. Moreover, cognition is an important aspect of the child’s learning. The various underlying mechanisms comprise of the different mental activities of human, which serve as the basic components needed for the successful children’s acquisition of knowledge. Two of these important mechanisms include memory and meaning (Alpiner & McCarthy, 2000). Thought, as a product of the various mental processes of the human cognition, also plays an important role in learning. Thoughts are the developed ideas, concepts and percepts that resulted from human cognition. Thoughts, therefore, are the views and perceptions of a person about certain things. It adds up on the body of knowledge of a person. Thought and cognition are two of the most important aspects of learning which serve as essential parts of man’s development and growth. Man’s education and learning mainly relies on these vital processes and products.

Friday, August 16, 2019

Angela’s Ashes: a Memoir

Lankford 1 Michelle Lankford Angela’s Ashes: A Memoir 10/06/2012 Antagonists in Angela’s Ashes Philomena Flynn was Angela’s cousin. Philomena was one of the people who pressured Malachy McCourt Sr. to marry Angela Sheehan after their mishap when Angela first came to the United States resulting in a pregnancy out of wedlock. Instead of Philomena helping her cousin she tracked down Malachy to make the pregnancy Malachy’s problem. Philomena tracked down Malachy McCourt at a bar. Philomena stated to Frank McCourt,† Our cousin no sooner gets off the boat than you are at her.We have morals in Limerick, you know, morals. We’re not like jackrabbits from Antrim, a place crawling with Presbyterians,† (McCourt 16). Philomena also commented on how Malachy had an odd manner (McCourt 16). After the birth of Angela and Malachy’s first son, a party was given at Philomena’s house. Philomena made a statement to Angela, â€Å"I’d make sure there’s no more children. He don’t have a job, so he don’t, an’ never will the way he drinks. So†¦ no more children,† (McCourt 19). Philomena had her fill with her cousin after Angela gave birth to another child.Philomena and her family made it clear, â€Å"they wanted nothing to do with Angela until she came to her senses,† (McCourt 19). Years later Philomena intervenes in Angela’s life again. Philomena gets in contact with Angela’s mother, Margaret Sheehan, asking for money to send Angela and her family back to Ireland (McCourt 45). Philomena even goes as far as buying a steamer trunk and hiring a van to take the family to Lankford 2 the pier (McCourt 46). As Francis McCourt states,† It was good-bye and good riddance,† (McCourt 46).Angela McCourt, mother of the seven McCourt children, enabled her husband Malachy McCourt Sr. to be a drunk. No where throughout this memoir does she put her foot down, encour aging Malachy Sr. to quit drinking. Throughout the memoir, Angela rants and raves about Malchy Sr. , not providing food and money for his family. Angela states many times though out the story,† They’re gone to bed half hungry because you have to fill your belly with whiskey,† (McCourt 25). Angela goes as far as taking her children down the streets of Brooklyn and Limerick, going from pub to pub seeking her husband.When the family returns to Ireland, Angela spends more time in bed due to illness and or own depression over the loss of 3 of her children instead of taking care of the ones who are alive. Angela takes to her oldest children down a road in search of coal to light a fire (McCourt 69) instead of demanding Malachy Sr. find gainful employment. Angela allows her eldest son, Francis McCourt to be the one who provides the care to his younger siblings. When Malachy McCourt Sr. , goes away to England to work, Angela shacks up with one of her cousins, Laman Griffi n, and has an extramarital affair while her children are in another room.The children hear them â€Å"talking, grunting and moaning,† (McCourt 291). Angela also has no problem allowing her eldest son to find gainful employment to help support the household while Malachy McCourt Sr. is in England sending no money. Angela receives welfare and charity most of the story instead of finding employment herself to support her family. Angela spent most of her time fixating on her losses rather than trying to figure out keeping her family together. Lankford 3 Malachy McCourt Sr. , from Toome, County Antrim (McCourt 12) was an Irish drunk. Malachy Sr. pent most of his years in a bar or pub spending whatever money he earned. Even after he married Angela and had seven children, he couldn’t resist the alcohol. The eldest child, Francis,† knew his father was always out looking for work, came home with smell of whiskey on his breath, and sang songs about Ireland suffering,†(McCourt 22). Angela always has hopes that Malachy Sr. could resist the pub and bring home his pay to support his family (McCourt 95). There comes a time in the story when the McCourt’s have their last child and Malachy’s Sr. ‘s father sends five pounds. Malachy Sr. cashes the money order and spends the money at the pub,† (McCourt 183). Even though Malachy Sr. is a chronic alcoholic his children and Angela love him. It is stated by Francis McCourt,† I think my father is like the Holy Trinity with three people in him, the one in the morning with the paper, the one at night with the stories and prayers, and then the one who does the bad thing and comes home with the smell of whiskey and wants us to die for Ireland,† (McCourt 210). Malachy Sr. , has a hard time finding working in Limerick, Ireland because he as a northern Irish accent.Northern Irish people aren’t accepted in Limerick due to their non-catholic religion and affiliation with t he English. Malachy Sr. eventually leaves his family and heads to England for work. Malachy Sr. seldom sends his pay, causing his family to have to beg from charities. It was said by Mr. Downes, â€Å"Malachy McCourt is gone pure mad with the drink, that he squanders his wages in pubs all over the Coventry,† (McCourt 230). Towards the end of the novel, Francis McCourt makes the statement,† He’s not coming, Mam. He doesn’t care about us. He’s just a drunk over there in England,† (McCourt 269). Malachy Sr. s many years of frequenting the pub have caused his family to starve, move to one room shacks, and to rely on others to help support his family. Lankford 4 The McCourt family belonged to low social class. They were poor. They lived in poverty. The McCourt family was rejected on many things because of their social class. Angela McCourt was nearly denied assistance from St. Vincent De Paul Society because they are â€Å"Yankees and thereâ€℠¢s barely enough charity for the poor people of Limerick,† (McCourt 63). Francis McCourt is denied being an altar boy, as Angela states,† I’ll tell you what it is, she says. Tis class distinction. They don’t want boys from the lanes on the altar,† (McCourt 149). The McCourt boys are constantly made fun of because of the rags they wear for clothes, shoes that have holes in them fixed with rubber tires by Malachy Sr. McCourt (McCourt 105) and even as far as having to eat a pig’s head for Christmas and carrying it through the lanes while other kids point and laugh and make jokes (McCourt 98). Poverty is the biggest antagonist in this memoir. The McCourt’s lived in one-room shacks that contained a fireplace, table, 3 chairs and 1 bed which had to accommodate six people. McCourt 59). Most of the McCourt’s meals consisted of tea and bread (McCourt 24) while Malachy McCourt spent his earnings in a pub. The McCourt’s were so poor t hat they filled the infant’s bottles with sugar and water (McCourt 36). While in the United States, many of the McCourt’s neighbors would bring extra food over to support the McCourt household (McCourt 41). In Ireland, Malachy McCourt Sr. goes to the Labour Exchange for the dole to provide some type of income for his family (McCourt 63). Angela McCourt proceeds to go to St. Vincent de Paul to get assistance.Angela is given a docket for a weeks worth of groceries (McCourt 66). The McCourts have to search down roads in order to find coal to have a fire and warmth (McCourt 69). In one of the dwellings the McCourt’s reside at, they must share a lavatory with the whole lane (McCourt 103). Angela McCourt is ashamed of how her family looks â€Å"with the Lankford 5 dirty old torn shirts, raggedy ganseys, broken shoes, and holes in their stockings,† (McCourt 231). Angela McCourt is forced also to be a beggar, as stated by Francis McCourt,† This is worse tha n the dole, The St.Vincent de Paul Society, and the Dispensary. It’s the worst kind of Shame,† (McCourt 250). Many times throughout the memoir Francis McCourt himself has stolen food such as stealing bananas from the Italians in Brooklyn (McCourt 32), stealing fish and chips from a drunken man (McCourt 184), acquiring lemonade from pubs for his mother (McCourt 236), and stealing food off people’s front doors (McCourt 238) to provide food for his family while his father is away in England not supporting his family. The poverty the McCourt’s faced caused illnesses and deaths in this family.It caused hospitalizations for Angela and Francis. This family was near starvation most of Francis McCourts childhood to teenage years. Francis McCourt is what held the family together. Francis McCourt’s life began in the United States and in the end of this memoir he ended up back in the U. S. Francis McCourt had many struggles while growing up. Francis had to deal with poverty, deaths of his younger siblings as well as friends, typhoid and conjunctivitis, his alcoholic father, religion and its hypocrisy.Francis learned that the only he was going to get anywhere was to be a hard worker and he waited year after year until he was finally able to work at 14 yrs old. The story told by Francis McCourt and his upbringing shows that if you work hard enough to achieve your dreams you will accomplish them regardless of what obstacles or mountains you have to climb. Look what Mr. Francis McCourt had to endure to make his dreams come true. He had a dream to return to the United States; A dream that he fulfilled at last. Lankford 6 Works Cited McCourt, Frank. Angela’s Ashes. 1st ed. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1996. Print

Thursday, August 15, 2019

Music during WW2 and how it played a role Essay

Music during World War 2 was made to help get people through depression and motivate the men and women fighting in Europe and Asia. Everyone was into patriotism at this time including the music they listened to. At this time music has expanded its demographic to younger audiences, before it popular music was mainly appealing for adults. It contained many uplifting styles of music such as swing, be-bop, and country. For example Frank Sinatra became very popular to the young teenage demographic. He was the first singing teen idol. He created more swinging music to help with the war with songs like â€Å"The Birth of the Blues†. Jo Stafford also became famous with her romantic World War 2 ballads. Most of her songs helped the troops overseas remember their wives and girlfriends back home. Other songs also helped like â€Å"America Calling† by Meredith Willson, which helped boost morale of the country and convinced men to enlist into the armed services. It reminds them about what this war is about and to support it. â€Å"Angels of Mercy† by Irving Berlin, which was created after the bombing of Pearl Harbor dedicating the American Red Cross nurses, portraying them as Angels of Mercy wounded victims overseas. â€Å"Back Home For Keeps† by Carmen Lombardo, which is about a wife waiting for her husband to return home. This song gave a good mood and also helped support the war. â€Å"Cowards Over Pearl Harbor† by Fred Rose, which gave great American Spirit by talking about how America will over Japan, the evil country. â€Å"G. I. Blues† by Floyd Tillman, which describes the view of an American Soldier at war. It describes them as being lazy and doing nothing, which makes him depressed and wanting to come home. His thinks that if they continue to have lazy soldiers, America will not be able to win. â€Å"Hello Mom† by Eddie Dunstedter, which was about more about the propaganda during the war and gave more morale. Plus, it also supported the war bonds. It helped the parents who had a son in the war make them feel better. â€Å"Ma! I Miss You Apple Pie† by a G.I. at a training camp, which summed up what America is fighting for. The Apple Pie symbolizes Americas Freedom and how a soldier misses his Apple Pie. â€Å"Wonder When My Baby’s Coming Home† by Kermit Goell and Arthur Kent, which is yet another  song about a wife or girlfriend waiting for her lover to come home, waiting in her house. â€Å"I’ve been Drafted Now I’m Drafting You† by Lyle Moraine & Chuck Foster, which is about the pains about separation and a soldier convincing his girlfriend to be proud to so him in uniform. In conclusion, the music during World War 2 where mainly about the war, patriotism, propaganda, and much more with lyrics that helped Americans get through the war years.

Wednesday, August 14, 2019

History of the Retail Industry

Write the history of the retail industry chosen. JUSCO  is the  acronym  for  Japan United Stores Company, a chain of â€Å"general merchandise stores† (or  hypermarket) and the largest of its type in  Japan. The various JUSCO companies are subsidiaries of  AEON Corporation Ltd. The JUSCO name was adopted in 1970 by a company originally founded as a kimono silk trader in 1758. Renamed AEONin 1989, it operates stores throughout  Japan  under JUSCO and other names and also has a presence in  Malaysia,  Hong Kong, mainland  China, and  Thailand.As of March 1, 2011, all JUSCO and SATY stores under the Aeon umbrella in Japan officially changed their names to AEON while all the JUSCO stores and shopping centres in Malaysia are fully re-branded into AEON since March 2012. However, JUSCO stores still operate in the Greater China region and some others. In 1985 the first JUSCO overseas store was opened, in  Plaza Dyabumi,  KualaLumpur,  Malaysia,  as a jointly-owned company with  Cold Storage  and three local companies. It was the first time that a Japanese company had entered into a significant joint venture in the Malaysian retail industry.JUSCO assumed total operational control of the chain in 1988. Currently. there are 20 AEON (formerly known as JUSCO) Retails stores and shopping centres are in operation in Malaysia. The oldest (though not the first) JUSCO store in Malaysia is JUSCO Taman Maluri in  Cheras, Kuala Lumpur. It opened on 30 October 1989. 2. List some products and services available at that retail business. Products -Coca Cola, Pepsi, 100Plus, 7-Up and other soft drinks – Junk Foods, Sushi, Fried Chicken – Shampoo, Shower, Toothpaste, and many other Daily necessities Services -FREE Gift with JUSCO J CARD Renewal â€Å"No Plastic Bag Day† at JUSCO -Jusco Home Furnishing Year End Stock Clearance Sale 3. Describe the Value Chain of the chosen retail industry (business receive raw materials as input, add value to the raw materials through various processes, and sell finished products to customers). Partnering with Vendor > Buying > Managing Inventory > Distributing Inventory > Operating Stores > Marketing and Selling. 4. Visit the website of retail business and discuss the information that would be useful to customers and clients of that business. AEON Company BHD. formerly known as Jaya Jusco Stores Bhd. ) is a leading retailer in Malaysia with a total revenue of RM3. 73 billion in the financial year ended 31st December 2009. The AEON group of companies consists of AEON Co. Ltd. , and more than 150 consolidated subsidiaries and affiliated companies. In addition to its core general merchandise stores (GMS) plus its supermarket and convenience store operations, AEON is also active in specialty store operations, shopping center development, operations and services. 5. Why the chosen retail business is known to be successful / not successful?The retail busi ness I’ve chosen is known to be successful. The reason why Jaya Jusco success in thier business is they have a very good principal. Regardless of how times may have changed, Jusco always serve the  Ã¢â‚¬Ëœ Customer First ’. The customers are satisfied, therefore they will go to Jusco again without any doubt. Secondly, the price are reasonbable and it is affordable by everyone in this big city. 6. Is the chosen retail business is a local based industry of international and who are the target market of this retail business?Yes, Jusco company is a local based industry of international. They aim all of the citizen as thier target market. Jusco company not only sells daily necessities, but also toys for kids as well. In addition, the kitchen stuff are for sales as well in Jusco company. Customers can even buy the clothes they like in Jusco. Therefore, kids, teenagers, adults, and old folks are the target market of this retail industry. 7. Describe thier Operations, and Ma nagement. Improving the quality of Jusco’s staff with OUM.On 4 August 2006, AEON Company BHD signed a Memorandum of Understanding with OUM (Open University Malaysia) for the Executive Diploma(in Trade Management, Human Resource Management and Retailing) Programme. AEON was represented by the Managing Director, Mr. Nagahisa Oyama and OUM was represented by Prof. Tan Sri Dato’ Anuwar Ali. A welcome ceremony was also held for the first batch of 69 students. On 18 December 2006, 31 AEON staff members were awarded their Diploma in Management (Retailing) at OUM’s 3rd Convocation ceremony, held at the PWTC’s Dewan Merdeka.The 24 apprentice and 7 international staff members received their Diplomas from the Pro Chancellor, Tan Sri Dato’ Azman Hashim. Japan Trainee Program The 5th batch of trainees who successfully completed the Japan Trainee Programme returned to Malaysia on 17 January 2007. They are now all holding positions as leaders in their respective stores nationwide. The Japan Trainee Programme is designed to help selected leaders prepare for the ever-changing retail environment, by exposing them to overseas working conditions. One of the vital ways to enhance their knowledge and skills in retailing is by giving them some experience in AEON Japan.This programme also teaches them to be independent, in preparation for their future roles as leaders in the Company. The AEON Business School The AEON Business School is an intensive course for the benefit of merchandisers, store managers and deputy store managers organised by AEON. To celebrate the successful completion of the course, a special closing ceremony was held on 22 September 2006. 8. Why Supply Chain Management (SCM) and JIT is important in this business and how do this business retain thier suppliers and customers.Supply Chain Management deals with linking the organizations within the supply chain in order to meet demand across the chain as efficiently as possible. Why is supply chain management so important? -To gain efficiencies from procurement, distribution and logistics -To make outsourcing more efficient -To reduce transportation costs -To meet competitive pressures Just in time  (JIT) is a production strategy that strives to improve a business  return on investment  by reducing in-process  inventory  and associated  carrying costs. Why is JIT so important? Reduced setup time -The flow of goods from warehouse to shelves improves -Employees with multiple skills are used more efficiently -Production scheduling and work hour consistency synchronized with demand -Increased emphasis on supplier relationships -Supplies come in at regular intervals throughout the production day -Minimizes storage space needed -Smaller chance of inventory breaking/expiring 9. Discuss on how quality is taken care in this business, you may explain in the context of ISO. Finding Employees with Ownership.Ownership is something that is easily recognized, but no t easily defined. An obvious illustration of ownership can be found in real estate. Generally when you own a property, you treat it with respect, keep it in good repair, and make improvements to protect your investment and increase its value. Many managers don’t know there is such a thing as ownership until they accidentally hire someone with it. Suddenly the sharp contrast between the employees with the owner mentality and the employees with the renter mentality becomes apparent.The newly awakened manager can now see that the quality of ownership brings with it the kind of proactive  and productive behaviors that get things done and get them done well. Since employees with ownership are usually self-directed and low maintenance, managers find that they have few time-consuming supervisory hassles with them. Liking what they see, managers instantly want more of this ownership stuff, but since they’re not sure how they got it in the first place, they’re not sure how to go about getting more employees with it for the future. 10. Draw the layout of the retail industry.

Applying to the Ivy League: Everything You Need to Know

Applying to college is no simple task, no matter where you apply, but for students applying to the prestigious Ivy League, the challenge is even greater. With acceptance rates consistently dipping below 10% and college applicants on the rise, getting into the Ivy League is a goal that most can only dream about. At , we have coached hundreds of students towards their Ivy League acceptances. In fact, we even helped one amazing student gain acceptance to seven of them! But what’s success if we aren’t willing to share it? Here, we provide a home for our top Ivy League tips. To learn more about the Ivy League and how you can score an acceptance too, take a look at the resources below. The term Ivy League actually refers to a collegiate athletic conference composed of sports teams from eight private colleges and universities in the northeastern United States. Though the term officially refers to an athletic conference, it is more commonly used to refer to these same eight schools in other contexts. Ivy League schools are generally known for their academic excellence and their extreme selectivity in admissions. The eight Ivy League schools are: Brown University, Columbia University, Cornell University, Dartmouth College, Harvard University, the University of Pennsylvania, Princeton University, and Yale University. To learn more about some of these schools and what they’re all about, check out these posts: The Ivy League is exceptionally difficult to get into, especially by today’s increasingly selective college admissions standards. To learn more about the standards expected by the Ivy League, check out these posts about Ivy League students: Before you apply to any colleges, you’ll want to learn as much about them as possible. This can be through campus visits, interviews, college rankings, summer programs, or other avenues. To get started learning more about the Ivy League, have a look through these posts: Estimating your chance of getting into a college is not easy in today’s competitive environment. Thankfully, with our state-of-the-art software and data, we can analyze your academic and extracurricular profile and estimate your chances. Our profile analysis tool can also help you identify the improvement you need to make to enter your dream school. As is the case with any school you apply to, you’ll need to be sure that your high school classes and extracurriculars qualify you for acceptance. To learn how you can prepare for the Ivy League in high school, check out these posts: Although the overall trend in Ivy admissions places less emphasis on test scores than it did in previous years (thanks in large part to Harvard’s Making Caring Common initiative ), your scores are still important. To learn how they factor into Ivy League admissions, check out these posts: Are you college applications signed, sealed, and delivered? Now you wait. For many students this is the hardest part of the process. Waiting and receiving college decisions can be stressful. Here are some tips to help along the way: If you are a high school student interested in attending an Ivy League school, but you’re unsure if you have what it takes or you would like some help to ensure that you present the strongest application possible, consider ’ s Mentorship Program . This program provides practical advice on topics from college admissions to career aspirations, all from successful college students who have been in your shoes.

Tuesday, August 13, 2019

CEOs Article Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

CEOs - Article Example However, the gap is mainly due to the reason that the CEOs have a far rosier view of the team performance than other members of the team. On the other hand, the team members are not able to be frank and outspoken due to their own inhibitions. It is common knowledge that good communication ishighly essential for effective leadership. A CEO has to understand how to make real conversation with his team members. But, creating a high-performance team is about a lot more than just communicating.Thoughtful CEOs realize the fact that the key contributor to overall effectiveness of the team is the team process and the right structure. Team process involves aspects such ashow the teamworks together, its decision-making patterns, how it manages conflict, andhow effective the team is in responding to changes in the environment. Structure includes the composition of the team, definition of roles, decision rights, and rewards that shape individual behavior in a team context. There is yet another important step every CEO needs to take. A CEO must analyze as to what he/she is good at when it comes to leading his/her team. What a CEO cannot do, he/she should get it done through others. For instance, a CEO who is not efficient in communication may seek outside help for the same. After all, a CEO is not promoted to such a position because he/she is an excellent coach, but due to other qualities such as achieving the desired business results, understanding external markets, being aggressive in introducing new products or expanding into new geographies. Seeking help from others may mean seeking help from consultants, may it be an external or internal consultant, but someone outside the team. Somebody who is not on the team is a great aid in making the team perform better because they have no stake in the content of any of the discussions and hence can view thingsfrom an impartial perspective. This article can mainly be related to the various steps involved in effective team building. These steps can be summarized as follows: Ensure the team goals are totally clear and completely understood by each team member. Ensure clarity in who is responsible for what and avoid overlapping authority. Build trust with team members by creating an atmosphere of honesty and openness. Recognize interpersonal issues early and deal with it in full. Ensure there are no blocked lines of communications and you and your people are kept fully informed. Involve the whole team in the decision making process. Not limit one to merely negative or positive aspects; practice fairness. Learning from George Washington's Leadership Reported by: Francesca Di Meglio Source: www.businessweek.com Link: http://www.businessweek.com/bschools/content/apr2008/bs20080422_057896.htm George Washington was notonly the first US President, but also anexcellent leaderwith amodern style of leadership. Mark McNeilly, author of'George Washington and the Art of Business: The Leadership Principles of America's First Commander-in-Chief,' in his book examines Washington's career and also points out the qualities of Washington that made him such an outstanding leader. Washington had traits like self-discipline, strong character, physical and moral courage, persistence, and integrity. Washington also was highly innovative. For