Sunday, December 1, 2019

MGST course outline free essay sample

Without question, you require expertise in a chosen field such as accounting, finance, marketing, or operations management, but knowing what to do and how to do it is not the same thing as getting it done. Your supervisor will judge your performance someday, not on what you know, but rather upon the basis of what you do. Getting things done in organizations requires excellent teamwork and interpersonal skills. Indeed, only when employees develop their people skills are they able to fully realize technical expertise in the pursuit of effectiveness and excellence.COURSE OBJECTIVES By the end of the course, students should develop a good understanding of elf-awareness, from which they gain insight about their own behaviors and the behavior of others. Students also should develop a good understanding of skills necessary for effective interactions with others, in such areas as communications, motivation, teamwork and conflict management. IMPORTANT: This class builds upon any junior course in organizational behavior that you may have taken. We will write a custom essay sample on MGST course outline or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The goal is to provide you with an opportunity to reflect carefully on a select group of B topics pertinent to working with people at work, and begin to develop associated skills in an experiential classroom environment. For this reason, we will only spend part of our time together discussing the concepts. A significant portion of the class will be reserved for experiential exercises to gain a more practical perspective on these B theories and concepts. As such, you are responsible for reading the assigned text chapters before class.Although I will usually provide a summary of key concepts and theories in class, you are expected to have a strong command of these materials (which will be assessed through the in class quizzes). REQUIRED TEXTBOOK AND/OR MATERIALS David A Wheaten Kim S Cameron. Developing Management Skills, 8th Edition; 201 1. In addition, Powering presentations will be posted on the Blackboard for your convenience. It is my practice to post many more slides than I actually use in class. This is to help summarize the material and prepare you for the quizzes and assignments.Please Bring Your Book To Class! Several class exercises and self-assessments are in the textbook. CONTACTING YOUR INSTRUCTOR Students requiring assistance are encouraged to speak to the instructor during class or during office hours. If you wish to meet with the instructor, lease email the instructor to make an appointment. Students should get into the habit of making and keeping business appointments. PROPER BUSINESS USE OF EMAIL Email is commonly used by students to communicate with their instructor.However, it does limit the effectiveness of the communications and may not be the best way for instructors to answer student questions, especially those requiring an explanation of concepts covered in this course or some personal concerns. Therefore the instructor may request a telephone call or personal meeting. INTERNET ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATION DEVICES Any surfing of the Internet during lectures that is not directly related to and approved for class discussion is distracting and strictly prohibited. Additionally, the use of any electronic devices (e. G. , cellular phones) for e- mailing, text-messaging, etc. S not allowed. Please turn OFF your phone before the beginning of each lecture. Class Structure The first 30-60 minutes of class will begin with a brief lecture. The remaining time will involve participation in different activities, such as completing diagnostic questionnaires and experiential class exercises. GRADE DISTRIBUTION Three Take-home Assignments Quiz 1 Quiz 2 30% Group Project Presentation Research participation bonus credit [up to 2%] Total 100% Take-home Assignments There will be THREE take-home assignments two individual and one group assignment.Assignment 1 (10%) is a self-awareness exercise that involves 1) obtaining an outsider perspective on your personal attributes, and 2) comparing your personal attributes to those of a work colleague. Assignment 2 (15%) involves completing a group task outside of class and thereafter documenting key team member roles and team processes that occurred. Assignment 3 (10%) involves creating and executing a performance plan to motivate a colleague on a specific task of interest and reporting on the key findings thereafter. Group Project Presentation The group project presentation is a Movie Analysis Presentation (10% of the final mark).After watching a movie, the group will analyze the material by relating it to topics covered in the course. The list of the movies and topics related to the movies are provided at the end of this outline. The goal is to enhance your skillfulness at recognizing, analyzing, and offering commendations for dealing with practical work situations using management principles and theories. Also, you will practice your oral communication skills. Students will be randomly assigned into groups of 6 (this will be the same group of 6 that works on Assignment 2).It is up to the group to choose the movie and obtain approval by the instructor. Projects Presentation On the last day of class, your team is expected to share your movie analysis findings with your classmates. Aim for a 10 minute formal presentation and then lead a five minute informal discussion with their classmates, answering questions that arise (time permitting). The goal is to become more comfortable presenting ideas in a public forum, a vital skill in any company. You will prepare a 1-2-page summary of your analyses to share With your classmates, and also to assist me with grading your presentation.Your team will be evaluated on presentation skills AND content (I. E. , appropriateness of the analysis, demonstrated through effective application of B theories and principles to understanding the core events of the movie). Normally members of teams will individually receive the marks awarded to the team on this assignment. However, the instructor reserves the right to conduct peer evaluations in cases where a majority of team members believe that a member is failing to perform his or her assigned duties and/or attend team meetings.It is the responsibility of the team to bring problems of this nature to the instructors attention as early as possible in the course to permit corrective action (I. E. Not at, or near, the end of the course when it is too late to permit remedial action to alter the behavior of the individual). Peer evaluations are taken seriously and can and do result in individual students achieving a higher or lower (including failing) grade than other team members of the group. In class Quizzes There is no final exam in this course instead there will be two in-class quizzes. Quiz one is worth 25% and Quiz two is worth 30%.The goal of these quizzes is to test your knowledge and understanding of theories and principles covered in the assigned chapters in the textbook, as well as materials covered in class. As you are responsible for reading up on these materials on your own time, this is an opportunity for you to demonstrate that you have done so successfully. The exam questions will be in multiple- choice form, although the questions will typically require you to think critically (and not just regurgitate definitions). GRADE SCALE The Hackney School of Business endeavourers to ensure consistency of final grades across courses and sections.

Tuesday, November 26, 2019

Major General Charles Griffin in the Civil War

Major General Charles Griffin in the Civil War Charles Griffin - Early Life Career: Born December 18, 1825 at Granville, OH, Charles Griffin was the son of Apollos Griffin.   Receiving his early education locally, he later attended Kenyon College.   Desiring a career in the military, Griffin successfully sought an appointment to the US Military Academy in 1843.   Arriving at West Point, his classmates included A.P. Hill, Ambrose Burnside, John Gibbon, Romeyn Ayres, and Henry Heth.   An average student, Griffin graduated in 1847 ranked twenty-third in a class of thirty-eight.   Commissioned a brevet second lieutenant, he received orders to join the 2nd US Artillery which was engaged in the Mexican-American War.   Traveling south, Griffin took part in the final actions of the conflict.   Promoted to first lieutenant in 1849, he moved through various assignments on the frontier. Charles Griffin - The Civil War Nears: Seeing action against the Navajo and other Native American tribes in the Southwest, Griffin remained on the frontier until 1860.   Returning east with the rank of captain, he assumed a new post as an instructor of artillery at West Point.   In early 1861, with the secession crisis pulling the nation apart, Griffin organized an artillery battery comprised of enlisted men from the academy.   Ordered south following the Confederate attack on Fort Sumter in April and the beginning of the Civil War,   Griffins West Point Battery (Battery D, 5th US Artillery) joined Brigadier General Irvin McDowells forces which were gathering at Washington, DC.   Marching out with the army that July, Griffins battery was heavily engaged during the Union defeat at the First Battle of Bull Run and sustained heavily casualties. Charles Griffin - To the Infantry: In the spring of 1862, Griffin moved south as part of Major General George B. McClellans Army of the Potomac for the Peninsula Campaign.   During the early part of the advance, he led the artillery attached to Brigadier General Fitz John Porters division of III Corps and saw action during the Siege of Yorktown.   On June 12, Griffin received a promotion to brigadier general and took command of an infantry brigade in Brigadier General George W. Morells division of Porters newly-formed V Corps.   With the beginning of the Seven Days Battles in late June, Griffin performed well in his new role during the engagements at Gaines Mill and Malvern Hill.   With the failure of the campaign, his brigade moved back to northern Virginia but was held in reserve during the Second Battle of Manassas in late August.   A month later, at Antietam, Griffins men were again part of the reserve and did not see meaningful action.       Charles Griffin - Divisional Command: That fall, Griffin replaced Morell as division commander.   Though possessing a difficult personality that often caused issues with his superiors, Griffin was soon beloved by his men.   Taking his new command into battle at Fredericksburg on December 13, the division was one of several tasked with assaulting Maryes Heights.   Bloodily repulsed, Griffins men were forced to fall back.   He retained command of the division the following year after Major General Joseph Hooker assumed leadership of the army.   In May 1863, Griffin took part in the opening fighting at the Battle of Chancellorsville.   In the weeks after the Union defeat, he fell ill and was forced to leave his division under the temporary command of Brigadier General James Barnes. During his absence, Barnes led the division at the Battle of Gettysburg on July 2-3.   In the course of the fighting, Barnes performed poorly and Griffins arrival in camp during the final stages of the battle was cheered by his men.   That fall, he directed his division during the Bristoe and Mine Run Campaigns.   With the reorganization of the Army of the Potomac in the spring of 1864, Griffin retained command of his division as leadership of V Corps passed to Major General Gouverneur Warren.   As Lieutenant General Ulysses S. Grant commenced his Overland Campaign that May, Griffins men quickly saw action at the Battle of the Wilderness where they clashed with Lieutenant General Richard Ewells Confederates.   Later that month, Griffins division took part in the Battle of Spotsylvania Court House. As the army pushed south, Griffin played at key role at Jericho Mills on May 23 before being present for the Union defeat at Cold Harbor a week later.   Crossing the James River in June, V Corps took part in Grants assault against Petersburg on June 18.   With the failure of this attack, Griffins men settled into the siege lines around the city.   As the summer progressed into fall, his division participated in several operations designed to extend the Confederate lines and sever the railroads into Petersburg.   Engaged at the Battle of Peebles Farm in late September, he performed well and earned a brevet promotion to major general on December 12. Charles Griffin - Leading V Corps: In early February 1865, Griffin led his division at the Battle of Hatchers Run as Grant pressed towards the Weldon Railroad.   On April 1, V Corps was attached to a combined cavalry-infantry force tasked with capturing the critical crossroads of Five Forks and led by Major General Philip H. Sheridan.   In the resulting battle, Sheridan became infuriated with Warrens slow movements and relieved him in favor of Griffin.   The loss of Five Forks compromised General Robert E. Lees position in Petersburg and the next day Grant mounted a large scale assault on the Confederate lines forcing them to abandon the city.   Ably leading V Corps in the resulting Appomattox Campaign, Griffin aided in pursuing the enemy west and was present for Lees surrender on April 9.   With the conclusion of the war, he received a promotion major general on July 12.    Charles Griffin - Later Career:       Given leadership of the District of Maine in August, Griffins rank reverted to colonel in the peacetime army and he accepted command of the 35th US Infantry.   In December 1866, he was given oversight of Galveston and the Freedmens Bureau of Texas.   Serving under Sheridan, Griffin soon became entangled in Reconstruction politics as he worked to register white and African American voters and enforced the oath of allegiance as a requirement for jury selection.   Increasingly unhappy with Governor  James W. Throckmortons lenient attitude towards former Confederates, Griffin convinced Sheridan to have him replaced with staunch Unionist Elisha M. Pease.    In 1867, Griffin received orders to replaced Sheridan as commander of the Fifth Military District (Louisiana and Texas).   Before he could depart for his new headquarters in New Orleans, he fell ill during a yellow fever epidemic that swept through Galveston.   Unable to recover, Griffin died on September 15.   His remains were transported north and interred at Oak Hill Cemetery in Washington, DC.   Selected Sources TSHA: Major General Charles GriffinHistory Central: Charles GriffinFind a Grave: Charles Griffin

Friday, November 22, 2019

Abstruse vs. Obtuse

Abstruse vs. Obtuse Abstruse vs. Obtuse Abstruse vs. Obtuse By Maeve Maddox What’s the difference between abstruse and obtuse? Both are adjectives. Abstruse comes from a Latin word meaning â€Å"concealed, hidden, secret.† In English it means â€Å"difficult to understand.† Remarking on complaints about the apparent meaninglessness of literary prizes, Jennifer Szalai writes, Prizes are awarded to tepid, undemanding best sellers everyone reads; prizes are awarded to obscure, abstruse books no one reads. The NY Times publishes an annual list of â€Å"abstruse words.† The list is compiled from the number of times readers click on a word in order to see a linked definition. Some examples of these â€Å"abstruse† words: antediluvian, peroration, and shibboleth. Obtuse comes from a Latin word meaning â€Å"blunt, dull, stupid.† â€Å"Obtuse angles† in geometry are not stupid; they are blunt. An angle â€Å"greater than 90 degrees and less than 180 degrees† is an obtuse angle. When botanists and zoologists say that something is obtuse, they mean that it is not sharp or pointed. For example, larch trees have cones that are about one inch long and obtuse at their points, i.e., blunt, not pointed, When applied to a person, obtuse means stupid, lacking in perception or understanding. In the movie The Shawshank Redemption, Andy uses the word in reference to the prison warden: Andy: How can you be so obtuse? Warden Norton: What? What did you call me? Andy: Obtuse. Is it deliberate? Sometimes people use obtuse when they mean abstruse. Here are some examples of misuse on a web page that seems to be offering them as examples of correct usage: They provide a very powerful, but also rather obtuse, set of tools for finding particular words or combinations of characters in strings. Obtuse language in such documents actually means? Obtuse lyrics and intricate symbolism. I suppose the writers of these examples could be calling the tools, language, and lyrics stupid, but I think it more likely that the powerful tools present a steep learning curve. If the language in the document leaves the person wondering about its meaning, then the language is difficult to understand. Finally, since the lyrics are being linked with symbolism, the word wanted is probably abstruse. An individual who is obtuse cannot understand. A book or explanation that is abstruse cannot be easily understood. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Misused Words category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:Regarding Re:40 Synonyms for â€Å"Different†How to Write a Proposal

Thursday, November 21, 2019

E-commerce Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words - 4

E-commerce - Essay Example It is also based on the premise that competition is relentless and people are the most important raw materials (Morrison Institute). Today the internet is aggressively used as a channel for businesses both new and established ones; through entrepreneurial start-ups and corporate ventures. E-commerce firms are defined as those that derive a significant or rapidly growing proportion of their revenues from transactions over the internet but organizational and market phenomena have been just as influential as technology developments in the growth of e-commerce (Stace, Holtham & Courtney, 2001). Internet exchanges are beneficial not just for the customers or end users but it helps businesses to exchange and grow together. It is a platform to transact business, known as business-to-business (B2B), business-to-customer (B2C) and customer-to-customer (C2C) and has definite advantages over the traditional way of transacting business (Amit & Zott, 2000). Many firms have failed to harness the benefits of online business even though the retail segment has picked up rapidly in the last few years. The debate continues whether ecommerce complements fixed store retailing or replaces existing channels, namely the clicks and bricks channels. E-retailing has been constantly undergoing a process of innovation which has caused a threat to the established retail and distribution channels. This new form of commerce is laden with information and enables companies to speed up activities and increase their scope. The external and internal factors influence the firm’s behavior and companies can differentially obtain advantage depending upon their ability to conduct business (Burt & Sparks, 2003). A failure to operate would allow competitors to surge ahead. E-commerce can help to transform the traditional tasks and activities and the associated costs within the retain channel. The activities that are affected are the sourcing of products, stoc kholding, inventory

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

Constructive critical analysis Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Constructive critical analysis - Essay Example Obtaining a Swedish personal identity number, or being a card holder of the European Health Insurance Card, entitles one to health care at the standard patient fee, with some exceptions depending on tax payer status. Dental care, however, is not fully subsidized and therefore relatively expensive in Sweden. Both systems are devolved. Both are financed largely through the tax payer’s money. They both have primary and secondary care. Primary care is delivered by General practitioners, surgeons among others. Primary health care center you can receive health care for medical problems and illnesses that are non-urgent and not life-threatening (Holtz, 2013). both systems provide for private and public health care facilities, private health care offers the same services as their public counterparts, however, the patients in the private care generally pay through private health insurance whose premiums are paid by employers or the individual themselves. In Sweden there is an agreement that guarantees patients under private care are covered under the same regulations and fees that are applied to municipal care facilities. Every patient has a right to choose between a private and public provider in primary care (Quaye, 2007). The health care system in Sweden is organized and managed on three level in the country that include the national level, regional and local levels. Therefore, health and medical care responsibilities in Sweden is shared by the central government, county councils and municipalities. The Ministry of Health and Social Affairs provides for principles and guidelines for care at the national level, to set the political agenda for health and medical care, supervise the lower level activities, allocate grants and evaluate services to ensure correspondence to national goals periodically. At the regional level responsibility is on the county council who ensure that there is efficient health care delivery,

Saturday, November 16, 2019

Geriatrics and Long-term Care Essay Example for Free

Geriatrics and Long-term Care Essay Though her sons and daughters check in on her all of the time, they are not there 24 hours a day. She does not want to have something happen and no one find out until several hours or days go by. She is very active in the community and church and I expect that she will remain so, even after moving into the assisted living facilities. This report seeks to uncover long-term care/housing programs and services provided to older adults. I will focus on the mission and services provided. From this report, I expect to gain an understanding of long-term care options and the differences amongst them, so it will be useful for my aging parents. Introduction There are 1,065,502 people (15. 1%), aged 60 and above, in Virginia (U. S. Census Bureau, 2000). There are 216,588 households with those aged 65 and over living alone with 565,204 households that contain individuals aged 65 and above (U. S. Census Bureau, 2000). The second number, 565,204 does not state that the household contains only 65 and over individual or could be an older person living with their son or daughters family. If taken into the later context that leaves 283,728 elderly that lives other than their own home or with another family member. This results in a huge demand for housing of the elderly on this country. With the onset of the baby boomers coming of old age, it is necessary that the government looks at ways to handle the increased need for housing of the elderly. Determining long-term care options Not everyone will need a long-term care option when they age. In fact currently most of the elderly remain in their residence. The questions elderly must ask themselves if considering long-term care are many. Elderly may consider long term care if they have a physical or mental disability, chronic illness, terminal illness or if they are not able to care for themselves. Everyone will need to make their own decision when it comes time, but having the information about what services and programs are available will make the decision much easier. Long-Term Care Options There are seven types of licensed care services and facilities; Home Care Services, Community Based Care Services, Adult Day Care Centers, Continuing Care Retirement Communities (CCRCs), Assisted Living Facilities, Nursing Homes and Senior Housing. Which one to choose depends on factors that include, cost, insurance, health needs, medical condition of the person and value for services provided? Home care services Home care services are broken down into skilled care and home support. Skilled care is provided under direction of a physician and administered by registered nurses, physical, speech and occupational therapists. Home support provides shopping, meal preparation and light housekeeping, to include bathing and dressing. Other home support services provided include counseling and social work services. Home care services allow older and disabled persons to remain in a familiar environment while maintaining their independence and security. Home care is designed for elderly and disabled people that do not need nursing home care, but needs assistance with day-to-day health and personal needs. The cost of home care is often less expensive than hospital and nursing home care. Home care service can: †¢ Preserve independence and security; †¢ Allow recipient to remain home; †¢ Relieve stress for recipient and family members or caregivers; and †¢ Prevent unnecessary hospital or nursing home bills. Community-Based Care Services If you have the ability to transport yourself to social activities, health appointments or go out for meals, community-based care services are probably not needed. However, for the elderly who cannot get out on their own, or have family that can provide transportation, community-based care services can help. Community-based organizations are broadly made up of an all volunteer staff. Services offered differ amongst organizations. Adult Day Care Centers Provides social interaction and meals in a protected environment, thus allowing those take care of the elderly person time-away. Social interaction includes activities such as physical exercise, games, trips, art and music. Some adult care programs offer medical services, such as help taking medications or checking blood pressure. In the United States of America 1,141 of 3,141 counties lack enough space for adult day care (Shellenbarger, 2002). Transportation to and from adult daycare is sometimes offered by the adult day care center. Currently cost of adult day care averages about $60 a day. Though it sounds expensive it is cheap compared to home-care, assisted living and nursing home care. Adult day care is covered through Medicaid and those insurance companies that offer long-term care policies. Continuing Care Retirement Communities Continuing Care Retirement Communities (CCRCs) offer independent living in a cottage setting to skilled nursing care and in between. The services can be all-inclusive, modified to meet the residents needs or in a fee-for-service. CCRCs promote wellness, independence and socialization in a residential environment. The idea behind a CCRC is that elderly can stay in one place rather than moving from one long-term care option to the next. Example, your parents move into senior housing, then assisted living area, then for further care move into a nursing home, all of which are located in the same complex. Vice paying monthly for rent and services provided, elderly pay a fee or endowment to be part of the CCRC. Assisted Living Facilities Assisted living facilities are broken down into independent, residential or assisted living facilities. Independent and residential living facilities provide minimal assistance for those elderly with minor limitations. Assisted living provides more assistance for those elderly that need help due to major limitations. Services offered include oversight, health care services and help with daily living activities. Assisted living facilities are one of the fastest growing long-term care options available today. In 2000, there were only about 1,000,000, aged 65 and above living in assisted living or residential care (Munn, Hanson, Zimmerman, Sloane, Mitchell, 2006). Since then assisted living facilities have blossomed to over 36,000 licensed facilities providing for more than 9,000,000 residents (Hernandez, 2005-2006). The boom is due to affordability and the homelike living arrangements offered. Nursing Homes When family can no longer take of their elderly member that is injured or disabled, home cares is the preferred option, but if there are no availabilities, then nursing homes are appropriate. In 2000, 1,557,800, aged 65 and above lived in nursing homes (Munn, Hanson, Zimmerman, Sloane, Mitchell, 2006). Most elderly that utilize nursing homes are recovering from illness or injury. Nursing homes also provide hospice care for those terminal elderly; provide rehabilitation; or maintain care for those elderly with chronic health care needs. Nursing homes provide around the clock care for those recovering from illness and injury. The homes are for those elderly that need more medical attention than social gathering. Nursing homes also provide personal care in the form of bathing, dressing and going to the bathroom for the elderly. Senior Housing This is for those elderly that do not need long-term care, but live in a home that is not considered safe. Senior housing often is apartments that have been adapted for the elderly and include railing in bathrooms, wider hallways and raised outlets. Optional services provided include meals, housekeeping and social activities. Choosing the right long-term care option With the long-term care options, mentioned above, selecting which program or service is right can be overwhelming. Think about what it is that you mother, father, or both want in their older years. Ask the elderly what it is that they want? What are their needs? Do they need help with chores? Do they prefer small facilities, certain location, special living conditions? What is their financial situation? Will you be paying for long-term care or is insurance providing coverage? Is Medicare or Medicaid involved? Research available long-term care facilities near your residence first. Ask questions about what services/programs that are/are not provided, if they are insured, costs and vacancies. Check on fee’s for special care services or if extra fees are charged for services. Think about waiting list, if you find the one you want, but are not needed immediately or near term. Visit and tour the facility with your loved ones. Is it friendly, does it look clean, are people happy, what activities do the have for residents. How many staff is available, come back during different times of the day on different days. What the rooms are like are any options available? What are the residents allowed/not allowed doing? Is there a schedule for anything, eating, naps, bedtime, and social visits? How often are your loved ones checked on? Does the staff conduct regular care training? Ask other residents what their opinion of the long-term care facility? Check with the Better Business Bureau to check for any complaints filed. Conclusion In conclusion, though there are many choices for long-term care, it will come down to the individual, the elderly, the elderly family or a combination to determine which type of care will best fit there needs. There is no one fits all long-term care facility, such as there is no specific type of elderly person. Everyone age’s differently and each will have their own very specific needs when it comes time to make a decision on long-term care. Some will choose to remain in their home while others may choose a community setting. However, one thing is known and that is the elderly population is increasing in the United States. This will lead to a higher demand for long-term care services in the future. In the past families tended to take care of their own and their parents, whereas now the elderly will have to start looking at looking at for themselves, though some will be taken care of by their children. In the end, follow your instincts. Choose a place that treats your parents with respect and makes them feel comfortable. References Bolda, E. J. (2006). Community Partnerships for Older Adults: Meeting the Housing Challenge. Generations, 29(4), 61-63.

Thursday, November 14, 2019

Natural Necessity, Objective Chances and Causal Powers :: Philosophy Philosophical Essays

Natural Necessity, Objective Chances and Causal Powers ABSTRACT: Are the relations between the property of a thing and its related disposition to react in certain ways, and between the triggering of that disposition and the consequent effect, necessary? Harrà © and Madden, in their analysis of causal powers, said they are, but their arguments are not persuasive. Humeans like Simon Blackburn deny it. I criticize the Humean position, and argue afresh for their necessity. I note that David Lewis' analysis of causation requires their necessity, though as a confessed Humean he has not admitted this. There is an interesting convergence among several recent theories of causation. They describe causes as events of a kind which increase the objective chance of events of other kinds, which are their effects. The theories I have in mind are those of David Lewis (1986, 1994), D.H. Mellor (1995), and Peter Menzies (1996). They attribute various other properties to causes, but all agree that this is an important and necessary fact about them. Thus, dropping a crystal wine glass onto a hard floor can be said to have caused it to shatter because it increased the probability of its shattering at that time, since whenever a piece of crystal glass is struck by a hard object, it will very probably shatter. Such generalizations relating cause and effect can be understood as being true of something because of one of its properties. For instance one can say: if something has the molecular structure of crystal glass, then if it is hit by a hard object it will very probably shatter. The generalization relating cause and effect can then be seen as a disposition of the thing whose property makes it true. In this case it amounts to saying that things which have the molecular structure of crystal glass are fragile. More generally, the generalizations involved in causation are of the following form: if something has a certain property, then if it comes into a certain relation with something else, it will result in another event, with a certain objective probability. Call this generalization [G]. This generalization looks very much like the analysis of causal powers offered by R.Harrà © and E.H. Madden (1975). They defined the causal power of a thing in terms of its disposition to behave in certain ways in certain circumstances because of its nature. They wrote: "'X has the power to A' means 'X will or can do A, in the appropriate conditions, in virtue of its intrinsic nature' (p.